State of the Art of Sports Data Visualization
We organize and reflect on recent advances and challenges in the field of sports data visualization. The exponentially-growing body of visualization research based on sports data is a prime indication of the importance and timeliness of this report. Sports data visualization research encompasses the breadth of visualization tasks and goals: exploring the design of new visualization techniques; adapting existing visualizations to a novel domain; and conducting design studies and evaluations in close collaboration with experts, including practitioners, enthusiasts, and journalists. Frequently this research has impact beyond sports in both academia and in industry because it is i) grounded in realistic, highly heterogeneous data, ii) applied to real-world problems, and iii) designed in close collaboration with domain experts. In this report, we analyze current research contributions through the lens of three categories of sports data: box score data (data containing statistical summaries of a sport event such as a game), tracking data (data about in-game actions and trajectories), and meta-data (data about the sport and its participants but not necessarily a given game). We conclude this report with a high-level discussion of sports visualization research informed by our analysis—identifying critical research gaps and valuable opportunities for the visualization community.